Circassians, also called Cherkess or Adyghe are an indigenous Northwest Caucasian ethnic group native to the historical country-region of Circassia in the south of modern Russia (the republics of Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and the southern half of Krasnodar Krai). As a consequence of the Caucasian War (1817-1864) most Circassians were exiled from their homeland in Circassia to modern-day Turkey and in other countries of the Middle East, where most of them are still today. The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization estimates that there are as many as 3.7 million "ethnic Circassians" in the diaspora outside the historical homeland. There remain about 700,000 Circassians in historical Circassia and in other regions of the Russian Federation.

Circassians mainly speak the Circassian languages, two mutually intelligible languages of the Northwest Caucasian language family, namely Adyghe (West Circassian) and Kabardian (East Circassian).

Circassians are composed of twelve tribes : the Abdzakh, Besleney, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Kabardian (the largest), Mamkhegh, Makhos, Natukhai, Shapsug, Temirgoy, Ubykh and Yegeruqwai. Each tribe speaks their own dialect of Circassian language.

The predominant religion amongst Circassians is Sunni Islam.

Total number: about 4,5 millions
 CIRCASSIAN (Kabardian)